Discovering the unknown with Biosensors

3 generations of Biosensors

Data needs to processed by several materials in the biosensors

As information and data passes through it the biosensors, it interacts through 3 main parts:

  • Transducer
  • Electronic System
components of a biosenser
components of a biosensor


The bio-receptors are specifically designed to interact with a specific analyte, and expected to produce and effect that will be measured by the transducer. Biosensors can be classfiied into different types of bio-recpetor depending on which interaction it is aimed to: antigen, enzymes, DNA, cells. (these are all different types of bio-receptors)

  • Aptasensors: nucleic acid based antibody mimics (aptamers)


The bio-transducer is an element that converts one form of energy to another. The main role of the transducer in a biosensor is to recognize a reaction and transform the event in a measurable signal. This process of conversion is known as signalisation. Majority of transducers are able to produce either optical or electrical signals that are equivalent to the amount of analyte-bioreceptor interactions.

Electronic System

Last stop, the electronic system! The electronic system is the last component of biosensors. This section helps processes the transduced signal and prepares it for display. There are 3 main parts of the electronic system (the components are in order of which the signal passes through):

  1. Processor — Analyzes information that has been received by the signal amplifiers. Interprets the information that has been converted.
  2. Display — The display is composed of a user interpretation system. This part consists of both hardware and software that shows the results of what the biosensor has processed. Normally, the output is shown through numbers or images.
  • Potentiometric Biosensors — this sensor has biological element incorporating that is connected to a physico-chemical transducer, providing an electrical potential (analytical signal)
  • Impedimetric Biosensors — immobilizing biological recognition elements onto an electrode surface (Immobilization: an enzyme attached to an inert, insoluble material)
  • Voltammetric Biosensors — information is obtained by varying potential, then analyzing the resulting current. This is an amperometric technique.



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Sanvi Rao

Sanvi Rao

Hey! I’m Sanvi. A 14 year old, who loves a challenge and is super passionate about learning the world’s biggest problems.